The turbine, which turned the energy of the source into mechanical energy for further use, was the most significant component of traditional energy (hydroelectric power plants). (technology of batteries)
However, with the development of renewable wind and solar energy, energy storage devices come to the fore, which will effectively store the energy received.
Cars of the future
will also not be able to do without efficient batteries and battery technology. Because the latest developments in battery technology and electric car trends are becoming more and more popular every day.
Types of energy systems.
A variety of technologies are available to capture energy, store it, and use it later.
The most common systems are the accumulation of electrical and thermal energy. Such systems are of several types:
The largest growth rate of energy storage over the past decade has been in electrical systems such as batteries and capacitors.
Capacitors are electronic devices that store electrical energy as a charge on metal plates.
When a capacitor is connecting to a power source, it stores energy, and when disconnecting from the source, it releases it.
Electrochemical methods are used to store energy in the battery. Because chemical reactions take longer to complete, capacitors can release stored energy at a faster rate than batteries.
Mechanical storage systems use the basic ideas of physics to convert electrical energy into kinetic energy for storage and then convert it back into electrical energy for consumption.
Such systems are large pumping-storage dams,
mechanical flywheels, and compressing air accumulators.
The storage of thermal energy allows it to be storing and using later to balance the need for energy between day and night or when the seasons change.
Most often these are tanks with hot or cold water, molten salts, ice storage, and cryogenic equipment.
Chemical. They are usually using in the storage of hydrogen. In them, electrical energy is using to extract hydrogen from water through electrolysis.
The gas is then compressing and stored for
future use in hydrogen generators or fuel cells.
This procedure consumes a lot of energy.Only 25% of the energy is saving for end-use.
Different industries and technologies use different types of batteries with different chemical compositions.
Lithium-cobalt batteries, lighter and with a higher voltage for fast charging, are used in smartphones and other household appliances.
More durable and larger lithium-titanate batteries which are installing in public transport, in particular, in electric buses.
Power plants use low-capacity but fireproof
lithium phosphate cells.
While alternatives to lithium-ion batteries are being developing, companies are looking for ways to more efficiently store energy.
A successful use case for advanced lithium-ion batteries has been to integrate them into hybrid power systems.
In industrial energy, such systems have been developing in the 2020s. They allow you to combine the advantages of several methods of energy storage and conservation.
One striking example is Tesla battery stations.
The first such station was built by Tesla in South Australia in 2017. Construction took only three months.
The company promising that if this period is exceeding, the country will receive the battery free of charge.
The average price for batteries for electric vehicles was $126/kWh. Thus, the cost of the battery pack in the total price of the car has decreased to 21%.
By 2030, the cost of batteries could drop to $58/kWh due to new technological advances.