Battery technologies are suitable energy storage systems in various types of vehicles, but they play a key role in the case of electric vehicles. The technologies behind their operation are constantly evolving, and different types of batteries differ from each other in application and technical characteristics. Learn about the types of batteries for electric car battery technology.
Lithium-ion battery technology is the most widely used.
Among the existing battery technologies, lithium battery pack for cars is now the most common (it is denoted for brevity by LIB – Li-Ion Battery). The reason for the advantages of characteristics:
- energy density (powers a tiny smartphone up to two days);
- discharge power (suitable for traction batteries of electric vehicles);
- Coulomb efficiency (gives off energy, how much it takes);
- service life (holds from 500 charge-discharge cycles).
Thanks to these advantages, electric vehicles, portable and flexible electronics, as well as stationary devices (industrial, medical, infrastructure) are now equipped with Li-ion batteries.
Now on the market there is a huge variety of Li-Ion batteries of various brands, both with protection and without. The explosive growth of their popularity occurred in 2008-2010, when a large number of powerful LED lights appeared on the market in foreign online stores.
But, it is worth recognizing that, so far, for most users, this type of battery is quite new and unfamiliar. In order not to get confused in all this variety, we want to give you some tips to help you decide what kind of lithium battery you need (protected or unprotected) and how not to buy frankly low-quality goods.
Due to Li-Ion technology, batteries have a number of limitations that must be observed during operation.
- maximum voltage (overcharge voltage) should not exceed 4.25-4.35V
- minimum voltage (over discharge voltage) should not be lower than 2.2-2.5V
- the discharge current should not exceed 2 times the value of the capacitance (2C): i.e. for a battery with a capacity of 2200mAh, the maximum discharge current should not be higher than 4400mA, and the owner of a capacity of 3100mAh can be safely discharged with a current of up to 6200mA. There are special types of high-power Li-Ion batteries that are designed to work with high discharge currents, exceeding their capacity by 5-10 times.
What type of battery is used in electric vehicles?
The use of a particular element depends not only on its performance, but also on the type of vehicle. In the case of all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids that can be charged from an outlet, we are usually dealing with lithium-ion batteries. Traditional hybrids use mostly nickel-hydride batteries. The greater contribution of the internal combustion engine to the operation of the vehicle allows for a higher level of energy loss when it is not in use. It should also be remembered that in the case of hybrid vehicles, the elements do not operate at maximum load for a long time.
Electric vehicles are much more efficient than internal combustion vehicles. The cost of electricity is in most cases significantly lower than the price of fuel needed to travel a similar route. The most efficient solutions on the market currently allow you to cover a distance of about 500 km on a single charge.